Waterproofing is the formation of an impervious barrier, which is designed to prevent water entering or escaping from various sections of building structures. In this regard, hydrostatic pressure is pressure exerted or existing within a liquid at rest with adjacent bodies. Hydrostatic pressure rises as the water table rises in the monsoon. While, for structures located in the vicinity of a water body, the hydrostatic pressure will be, which will try to force water into the pores of concrete and assist in a rapid deterioration.
Internal areas that are waterproofed include bathrooms, shower recesses, laundries and toilets. While, external areas waterproofed extends to roofs, planter boxes, podiums, balconies, terraces, retaining walls and swimming pools.
Box type waterproofing treatment for underground structures like, Basement, Tanks, Lift pit, Tunnels, Swimming pools etc.
METHODOLOGY (BOX TYPE WATERPROOFING)
The Methodology of our treatment below raft i.e. over PCC and on the retaining wall is based on processes to create a Rigid Natural Envelope bonding system around the underground structure.
A ) Horizontal Surfaces:-Spread Cement Slurry on PCC, prepare a cement mortar of 1:4 for metal coba by using, average 20mm thick stone metal, here the stone aggregate of 10 to 20mm thick are sprinkled randomly. After 24 hrs of metal coba work, spread cement slurry on metal coba for fixing rough stone ladi (of 15mm to 20mm thick size(1’-6” x 2’-0” or 2’-0” x 2’-0”) with cement mortar 1:4 maintaining a gap of 20mm to 40mm, Raking out mortar between ladi to the half depth. Grout the joint to about half depth from top with cement slurry and embedding 10mm/20mm stone metal pieces. Pointing the joint tops with Cement paste. Spread Cement Slurry on top of Ladi, Prepare a cement mortar of1:4 to spread over Ladi floor of 12mm to 20m thick finished smooth. Cure it properly. All Cement Mortar will be mixed with integral Waterproofing compound.
B) Vertical Treatment:-Hack external concrete surface and clean it thoroughly. Fix rough stone ladi with cement paste and close the joints keeping a gap of 10mm to 12mm between wall and ladi. Neatly cement pointing is to be done to close uneven gaps between ladi joints. Apply scratch coat with cement mortar of 1:4 Approx. 3mm to 4mm thick. Gaps between Ladi and RCC wall to be filled by Grouting procedure with neat cement slurry, apply cement plaster in cement mortar 1:4 on external face Approx. 12mm to 20mm on Rough treated area and make smooth finish. Cure the area properly.
All Cement Mortar will be mixed with integral Waterproofing compound.
TOILETS, PLANTERS, BALCONIES, DRY BALCONY, KITCHEN SUNK
We propose to treat the toilets by our “SURFACE” method. But before our treatment on the floor and walls begins, all chiseling or cutting in the floor & walls shall be done by the plumber. Then we will treat the floor and walls with our waterproof plaster about ¾” to 1” (18mm to 25mm) thick. The walls treatment will be upto full height with surface suitable and even to receive tiles. Treatment will be carried out by Micro cleaning and hacking work thoroughly, Joints will be treated by rich Cement, and Aggregates are hand packed. Injection grouting will be carried out if required. Spreading cement slurry on floors and walls Waterproof base coat plaster is carried out with cement punning to the floor and walls. Curing by ponding method is carried for three days
Before starting Brickbat, the Plumber has to finish all the plumbing works i.e. laying and fixing the pans, pipes, and traps etc. without any further breaking or disturbing our treatment. We shall then fill in the depression with our waterproof brickbat coba up to the level for fixing tiles, by spreading cement slurry on floor and laying brickbat coba in C:M 1:4 in proper slope and curring for two days. The surface is then finished by applying IPS on the brickbat coba in C:M 1:4 in proper slope. All Cement Mortar will be mixed with integral Waterproofing compound.
We propose to treat the terrace by “SURFACE” method which starts directly over the RCC slab and includes brickbat coba to provide the necessary gradient for the easy flow of rain water. The coba is finally covered with the waterproof plaster finished smooth trowel in cement colour false square lines 1’ 0” on the top. The junction between the parapet and other adjoining wall with the terrace slab will have round wattaupto1’- 0” height. The proposed gradient for the easy flow away of the rain water will be 1: 20 ( 1 inch in 10 feet ). The average thickness of our treatment on the floor will be about 4” (100mm) & on walls 1” (25mm). The surface provided is hard and tough suitable for all domestic purpose. It has got better insulation value then the bitumastic preparation, which are good conductors of heat. In case decorative finishing like marble, tiles pieces etc. is desired on the floor and walls.
Treating the surface by Micro cleaning and hacking thoroughly and opening all construction joints and treated by rich Cement, and Aggregates are hand packed. Grouting to be carried wherever found necessary by fixing nozzles. Spreading cement slurry brickbat are laid of Avg 4½”thk (115 mm) in proper slope making watta of 300 mm in height. Curing to be carried out by ponding method for seven days. Surface is finished smoothly in C:M 1:4 IPS with false square lines. (The surface will be finished rough if other finishes like china mosaic or tiling is to be laid). All Cement Mortar will be mixed with integral Waterproofing compound.